- Open Access
CIDE-A is expressed in liver of old mice and in type 2 diabetic mouse liver exhibiting steatosis
© Kelder et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
- Received: 19 July 2006
- Accepted: 01 May 2007
- Published: 01 May 2007
Increased levels of circulating fatty acids caused by insulin resistance and increased adipocyte lipolysis can accumulate within the liver resulting in steatosis. This steatosis sensitizes the liver to inflammation and further injury which can lead to liver dysfunction. We performed microarray analysis on normal mouse liver tissue at different ages and type 2 diabetic liver exhibiting steatosis to identify differentially expressed genes involved in lipid accumulation and liver dysfunction.
Microarray analysis identified CIDE-A as the most differentially expressed gene as a function of age. Mice fed a high fat diet developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and liver steatosis, all features of the human metabolic syndrome. Increased CIDE-A expression was observed in type 2 diabetic liver and the elevated CIDE-A expression could be reversed by weight loss and normalization of plasma insulin. Also, CIDE-A expression was found to be correlated with hepatic lipid accumulation.
The corresponding increase in CIDE-A expression with hyperinsulinemia and liver steatosis suggests a novel pathway for lipid accumulation in the liver.
- Lipid Accumulation
- Brown Adipose Tissue
- White Adipose Tissue
- Diabetic Mouse
- Liver Steatosis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of liver disease and is estimated to affect 10 to 24% of the general population in western nations . While NAFLD is a serious problem, effective treatments are still lacking. NAFLD is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis . Hepatic steatosis is caused by lipid accumulation within hepatocytes and is a relatively benign condition. However, steatosis combined with necro-inflammatory activity may progress to end-stage liver disease [3–7]. The higher prevalence of NAFLD in persons with obesity, hyperinsulinemia or type 2 diabetes suggests that elevated circulating fatty acid concentrations caused by insulin resistance and increased adipocyte lipolysis plays a pivotal role in the development of this syndrome [1, 8].
CIDE-A (cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector-A) is a member of a family of proapoptotic proteins that includes CIDE-B and CIDE-3/FSP27 [9–11]. Whereas CIDE-A is capable of inducing apoptosis, CIDE-A also plays a role in regulating energy balance and lipid metabolism . CIDE-A gene disrupted mice (CIDE-A -/-) have a lean phenotype and are resistant to diet-induced obesity and possibly diabetes . CIDE-A also interacts and inhibits uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) resulting in greater energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and less lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) . Likewise, the lack of CIDE-A in gene disrupted mice results in increased thermogenesis, energy expenditure and lipolysis .
In humans, CIDE-A expression in adipose tissue is negatively correlated with fat mass [15, 16]. That is, CIDE-A has been shown to be decreased 2-fold in subcutaneous WAT of obese humans yet highly upregulated in obese individuals undergoing weight reduction . In addition, a single nucleotide polymorphism (V115F) has been shown to be associated with obesity in a Swedish population .
Previous reports have indicated that CIDE-A is not expressed in normal adult human or mouse liver tissue [9, 12]. However, CIDE-A has been detected in the liver of mice treated with the hypolipidemic compound and potent peroxisome proliferator, WY-14,643 [18, 19]. Due to the recent reports describing a role for CIDE-A in the regulation of lipid metabolism, we examined CIDE-A expression in liver of normal mice at various ages and in a mouse model of diet-induced type 2 diabetes and liver steatosis.
CIDE-A is expressed in the liver of old mice
Liver steatosis is observed in CIDE-A expressing older mice
CIDE-A expression is increased in type 2 diabetic mice
Liver steatosis induced by high-fat diet
Hepatocytes from control and diabetic mice contained approximately the same level of lipid at 2 (individual values – control: 10.2%, 7.7%; diabetic: 9.7%, 9.2%) and 4 weeks (individual values – control: 9.3%, 8.1%; diabetic: 13.6%, 8.8%) on the respective diets. However, by 8 weeks, hepatocytes from diabetic mice liver tissue isolated from high fat-fed mice contain more lipid than their control counterparts (individual values – control: 10.3%, 8.9%; diabetic: 18.0%, 13.0%). Severe liver steatosis was observed in mice fed the high-fat diet for 16 weeks and was even more pronounced after 26 weeks of high-fat feeding. The percent white space in these livers was 33.6% and 27.0% at 16 weeks and 45.0% and 61.3% at 26 weeks. In comparison, the percent white space in liver tissue of mice fed the normal diet for 16 weeks was 8.6% and 10.6% and is 12.5% and 11.8% for those at 26 weeks. The changes in percent white space were positively correlated with CIDE-A expression levels as determined by microarray analysis (r = 0.94; P < 0.001).
Effect of diet-reversal on CIDE-A expression
Effect of diet reversal on weight, insulin and glucose levels of type 2 diabetic mice.
Plasma Insulin (ng/ml)
Fasting Glucose (mg/dl)
35.1 (3.5) a
326 (190) a
150 (13.8) a
56.5 (5.3) b
1981 (1170) b
153 (17.9) a
37.1 (1.9) a
247 (104) a
114 (11.4) b
While liver steatosis and its associated diseases represent an ever increasing health problem, the key pathways and metabolic processes involved in the development of this disease are not fully understood and effective therapies are lacking. In this report, we describe a new pathway that may be involved in liver steatosis. We demonstrate that CIDE-A is expressed in liver of old mice. In fact, DNA microarray analysis indicates that CIDE-A is the most differentially expressed liver gene between young and older mice (38-fold increase). The increased expression of CIDE-A may not be due solely to increased age per se, but more likely a consequence of increased insulin resistance in the mice at older ages . Insulin resistance is a common occurrence in aging individuals and is believed to be caused by increased adiposity rather than the aging process [31–36]. CIDE-A expression is also increased in a model of diet-induced type 2 diabetes. Increased CIDE-A expression was confirmed by Northern and immunoblot analyses. Elevated CIDE-A expression can be reversed by weight loss and normalization of plasma insulin. Also, CIDE-A expression was found to be correlated with hepatic lipid accumulation.
Previous reports have indicated that human and mouse CIDE-A are expressed in several tissues such as BAT, WAT, heart, lymph node, thymus, skeletal muscle and is localized to the mitochondria [9, 15]. In another study, CIDE-A-deficient mice were found to have a lean phenotype and are resistant to obesity . We believe that CIDE-A expression was not previously detected in liver due to the use of tissue from an inappropriate age or condition. Our data would suggest that human liver from older, insulin resistant or diabetic individuals may express this protein.
This study has identified CIDE-A as another potential mediator of lipid accumulation in liver hepatocytes. A recent study has proposed a human-specific role for CIDE-A in lipolysis and metabolic complications . The previous study demonstrated that CIDE-A is expressed in human WAT with its expression decreased twofold in obese humans and normalized after weight loss. Reduced CIDE-A expression results in increased TNF-α secretion and basal lipolysis in subcutaneous WAT . Increased TNF-α secretion also further decreases CIDE-A expression via TNF-α signaling through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) . With this data, a model has emerged describing the role of CIDE-A in elevation of circulating FFA. Specifically, a decrease in CIDE-A expression results in increased TNF-α secretion resulting in increased lipolysis. The increased basal WAT lipolysis induced by low CIDE-A levels and elevated TNF-α secretion results in elevated levels of circulating fatty acid which can then be redirected to other tissues such as the liver. According to the model, increased CIDE-A expression and subsequent decreased TNF-α secretion would lead to decreased lipolysis and the accumulation of lipid within the tissue. Thus, increased CIDE-A expression in hepatocytes as a result of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes may promote the uptake of increased circulating fatty acids released from WAT and lead to steatosis.
CIDE-A has been postulated to play a role in apoptosis suggesting the intriguing possibility that CIDE-A may play a role in apoptosis associated with liver steatosis and NAFLD. Disease progression from benign steatosis involves injury and an inflammatory response . While the cause of the injury is not understood, it is clear that cellular apoptosis represents one of the first responses to injury and is a prominent feature of NAFLD as well as other diseases such as viral hepatitis, alcohol-induced liver disease, cholestatic liver diseases and ischemia/perfusion injury [3–7, 37, 38]. We did not, however detect increased apoptosis in CIDE-A expressing livers samples by TUNEL analysis and therefore believe that CIDE-A main function in the liver involves lipid metabolism.
CIDE-A is expressed in normal adult mouse liver at older ages and is expressed in the liver of hyperinsulinemic and type 2 diabetic mice. CIDE-A expression positively correlates with liver steatosis in a mouse model of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. These observations suggest a novel role for CIDE-A in the lipid accumulation characteristic of liver steatosis.
Future experiments that further delineate CIDE-A expression and effects will shed light on its function in the liver. Definitive experiments include placing the CIDE-A null mice, described by Zhou et al. , on the described high fat diet and assessing the effect of the lack of CIDE-A on liver steatosis and type 2 diabetes. The complementary experiment of generating transgenic mice expressing CIDE-A in the liver and assessing its effect under the same conditions may provide clues to CIDE-A function. Regardless, these data provide compelling evidence that CIDE-A exists in the liver and further suggests that CIDE-A expression levels are radically altered in mice as a function of age and/or metabolic state.
Animal models used to identify differentially expressed liver genes
All experimental protocols were approved by the Ohio University Animal Care and Utilization Committee.
For the analysis of gene expression during the aging process, twelve male C57Bl/6J mice were fed standard chow (PMI Nutrition International Inc., Brentwood, MO, Prolab RMH3000) immediately following weaning. Mice were sacrificed at 35, 49, 56, 77, 133, 207, 403, 558 and 725 days of age. A portion of the left lateral lobe of the liver was placed in 4% paraformaldehyde and the remaining tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen until processed for RNA isolation. For the analysis of normal versus diabetic liver gene expression, we utilized a mouse model of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes first described by Surwit  and replicated successfully in our laboratory and others [21, 22]. Mice were weaned at 3 weeks onto either standard chow or a high-fat diet (BioServe, Frenchtown, NJ. #F1850) for up to 26 weeks. Representative mice were sacrificed after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 26 weeks on the diet (35, 49, 77, 133 and 203 days of age) and liver tissue was isolated. Mice fed standard chow served as control animals. Type 2 diabetic mice were characterized as having > 200 mg/dl fasting blood glucose and at least a 2-fold increase in fasting plasma insulin compared to control mice.
For diet-reversal analysis, C57Bl/6J mice were weaned onto a standard chow (SC) diet and maintained for 47 weeks. A second set of mice were weaned onto a high-fat diet (HF) diet for 33 weeks. One half of the high-fat fed mice were maintained on the high-fat diet while the other half was switched to standard chow for a period of 14 weeks. Food and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the course of the studies. Following the 47 week feeding period, the animals were sacrificed and liver tissue isolated as described above.
Glucose and insulin levels
Blood-glucose levels were measured from blood taken from the tip of the tail of fasted (8 hr) mice using a One Touch glucometer (Life scan). All measurements occurred between 2:00 and 5:00 pm. Insulin concentrations were determined using the Ultrasensitive Rat Insulin ELISA kit (ALPCO, Windham, NH) as instructed by the manufacturer. Values were adjusted by a factor of 1.23 as determined by the manufacturer to correct for the species difference in cross-reactivity with the antibody.
Total RNA was isolated from whole liver using the RNA STAT-60 Total RNA/mRNA Isolation Reagent according to the manufacturer's instructions (Tel-Test, Friendswood, TX). Biotinylated cRNA hybridization target was prepared by a linear amplification method as described in the manufacturer's instructions for CodeLink Expression Bioarrays™ (Amersham Biosciences). The oligonucleotide probes were provided by the Codelink Uniset Mouse I Bioarray (Amersham, product code 300013). CodeLink Expression Bioarrays™ contain 10,000 oligonucleotide probes, each specific to a well-characterized mouse gene. Using the cRNA target, the hybridization reaction mixture containing the biotinylated target cRNA was loaded into array chambers for bioarray processing as described in the manufacturer's instructions for CodeLink Gene Expression BioarraysTM (Amersham Biosciences). Each sample was hybridized at 37°C to an individual microarray. Hybridization was detected with an avidinated fluorescent reagent, Streptavidin-Alexa Fluor ® 647 (Amersham). Processed arrays were scanned using a GenePix 4000B Microarray Scanner (Axon Instruments, Inc.). Array images were acquired using the Amersham CodeLink Analysis Software (Release 2.2). A significant difference in expression between samples was defined as a minimum of 2-fold change in expression values.
RNA was isolated from frozen liver as described above. cDNA transcripts were created using iScript cDNA Synthesis Kit (Cat# 170-8891, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA). Real Time RT-PCR was performed on the Bio-Rad iCycler iQ Real Time PCR Detection System (Cat# 170-8740, Bio-Rad Laboratories) using IQ SYBR Green Supermix (Cat# 170-8882). CIDE-A primers (Forward Primer: 5'CTCGGCTGTCTCAATGTCAA3'; Reverse Primer: 5'CCGCATAGACCAGGAACTGT3' were designed using Primer3 online software . Housekeeping genes, ACTG (actin gamma cytoplasmic) and GADPH (glyceraldehyde-III phosphate dehydrogenase) were utilized for normalization as described by Vandesompele et al. [40, 39]. Relative expression levels were then calculated using normalization factors derived from geNorm analysis of ACTG and GADPH using the delta-delta CT method .
Liver histology and image analysis
Liver tissues fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde were embedded in Tissue Path (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA). Embedded tissue was sectioned for seven microns thickness, stained with H&E and evaluated by an automated light microscopy system, consisting of a 20 × lens with 0.5 NA, scanning stage, 3-color CCD camera and image analysis software and database (Icoria Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC). Images were taken at 0.64 micron resolution and were automatically assembled into montages. From 300 to 500 single images were captured to represent a single tissue section. These montages were then used for subsequent automated analysis of both gross anatomical features and fine tissue structures using automated pathology software [41, 42]. Tissue metrics included counts, area, density and size of hepatocyte nuclei, non-hepatocyte nuclei, percent intracellular and extracellular white space. The feature intracellular white space calculated the amount of white space within hepatic boundaries, the appearance of which is consistent with lipid accumulation in this study. Application of these methods resulted in distinct tissue profiles for all animals.
Total RNA (10 μg) from appropriate tissues was resolved by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred to nylon membrane, hybridized with the [α-32P]dCTP-labeled mouse CIDE-A cDNA (Random Primed DNA Labeling Kit, Roche, Indianapolis, IN) and exposed to Bio-Max MR film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY).
Liver and heart tissue (100 mg) was homogenized in 0.5 ml phosphate buffered saline containing 7.5 μl protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma #P8340, St. Louis, MO). The samples were centrifuged for 5 min at 10,000 g. The supernatant was collected and protein concentration determined (Bio-Rad Laboratories #500-0006, Hercules, CA). Sixty μg of each extract was electrophoresed on a 12.5% SDS-polyacrylamide gel as described . Resolved proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane and immunoblotted using a rabbit anti-mouse CIDE-A polyclonal antibody (QED Bioscience Inc., San Diego, CA) as previously described .
Data are reported as dot plots or as mean (SD). Differences between two groups were assessed using the unpaired two-tailed Student's t test. For comparisons between multiple groups, ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple-comparisons test was used. Analysis of correlations was done with Pearson correlation coefficients. Statistical significance was indicated by P value less than 0.05. SigmaStat statistics software (version 12.0; SPSS) was used for all calculations.
This work was supported in part by a mentored career development award from NIH (DK064905) and by the State of Ohio's Eminent Scholar Program, which includes a grant from Milton and Lawrence Goll (JJK) and by DiAthegen, LLC.
- Alba LM, Lindor K: Review article: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003, 17: 977-986. 10.1046/j.1365-2036.2003.01493.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ludwig J, Viggiano TR, McGill DB, Oh BJ: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Mayo Clinic experiences with a hitherto unnamed disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 1980, 55: 434-438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feldstein AE, Canbay A, Angulo P, Taniai M, Burgart LJ, Lindor KD, Gores GJ: Hepatocyte apoptosis and fas expression are prominent features of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2003, 125: 437-443. 10.1016/S0016-5085(03)00907-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Higuch H, Gores GJ: Mechanisms of liver injury: an overview. Curr Mol Med. 2003, 3: 483-490. 10.2174/1566524033479528.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Natori S, Rust C, Stadheim LM, Srinivasan A, Burgart LJ, Gores GJ: Hepatocyte apoptosis is a pathologic feature of human alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2001, 34: 248-253. 10.1016/S0168-8278(00)00089-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Natori S, Higuchi H, Contreras P, Gores GJ: The caspase inhibitor IDN-6556 prevents caspase activation and apoptosis in sinusoidal endothenial cells during liver preservation injury. Liver Transpl. 2003, 9: 278-284. 10.1053/jlts.2003.50019.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canbay A, Friedman S, Gores GJ: Apoptosis: The nexus of liver injury and fibrosis. Hepatology. 2004, 39: 273-278. 10.1002/hep.20051.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chitturi S, Abeygunasekera S, Farrel GC, Holmes-Walker J, Hui JM, Fung C, Karim R, Lin R, Samarasinghe D, Liddle C, Weltman M, George J: NASH and insulin resistance: Insulin hypersecretion and specific association with the insulin resistance syndrome. Hepatology. 2002, 35: 373-379. 10.1053/jhep.2002.30692.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Inohara N, Koseki T, Chen S, Wu X, Nunez G: CIDE, a novel family of cell death activators with homology to the 45 kDa subunit of the DNA fragmentation factor. EMBO J. 1998, 17: 2526-2533. 10.1093/emboj/17.9.2526.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Danesch U, Hoeck W, Ringold GM: Cloning and transcriptional regulation of a novel adipocyte-specific gene, FSP27. CAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and C/EBP-like proteins interact with sequences required for differentiation-dependent expression. J Biol Chem. 1992, 267: 7185-7193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liang L, Zhao M, Xu Z, Yokoyama KK, Li T: Molecular cloning and characterization of CIDE-3, a novel member of the cell-death-inducing DNA-fragmentation-factor (DFF45)-like effector family. Biochem J. 2003, 370: 195-203. 10.1042/BJ20020656.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou Z, Yon Toh S, Chen Z, Guo K, Ng CP, Ponniah S, Lin SC, Hong W, Li P: Cidea deficient mice have lean phenotype and are resistant to obesity. Nat Genet. 2003, 35: 49-56. 10.1038/ng1225.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li P: Cidea, brown fat and obesity. Mech Ageing Dev. 2004, 125: 337-338. 10.1016/j.mad.2004.01.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin SC, Li P: CIDE-A, a novel link between brown adipose tissue and obesity. Trends Mol Med. 2004, 10: 434-439. 10.1016/j.molmed.2004.07.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nordstrom EA, Ryden M, Backlund EC, Dahlman I, Kaaman M, Blomqvist L, Cannon B, Nedergaard J, Arner P: A human-specific role of cell death-inducing DFFA (DNA fragmentation factor-α)-like effector A (CIDE-A) in adipocyte lipolysis and obesity. Diabetes. 2005, 54: 1726-1734. 10.2337/diabetes.54.6.1726.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dahlman I, Linder K, Nordstrom EA, Andersson I, Liden J, Verdich C, Sorensen TIA, Arner P: Changes in adipose tissue gene expression with energy-restricted diets in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005, 81: 1275-1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dahlman I, Kaaman M, Jiao H, Kere J, Laakso M, Arner P: The CIDEA gene V115F polymorphism is associated with obesity in Swedish subjects. Diabetes. 2005, 54: 3032-3. 10.2337/diabetes.54.10.3032.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Merrick BA, Bruno ME: Genomic and proteomic profiling for biomarkers and signature profiles of toxicity. Curr Opin In Mol Ther. 2004, 6: 600-607.Google Scholar
- Iida M, Anna CH, Hartis J, Bruno M, Wetmore B, Dubin JR, Sieber S, Bennett L, Cunningham ML, Paules RS, Tomer KB, Houle CD, Merrick AB, Sills RC, Devereux TR: Changes in global gene and protein expression during early mouse liver carcinogenesis induced by non-genotoxic model carcinogens oxazepam and Wyeth-14,643. Carcinogenesis. 2003, 24: 757-770. 10.1093/carcin/bgg011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Surwit RS, Kuhn CM, Cochrane C, McCubbin JA, Feinglos MN: Diet-induced type 2 diabetes in C57BL/6J mice. Diabetes. 1988, 37: 1163-1167. 10.2337/diabetes.37.9.1163.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qui L, List EO, Kopchick JJ: Differentially expressed proteins in the pancreas of diet-induced diabetic mice. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005, 4 (9): 1311-1316. 10.1074/mcp.M500016-MCP200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wei P, Lane PH, Lane JT, Padanilam BJ, Sansom SC: Glomerular structural and functional changes in a high-fat diet mouse model of early-stage type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2004, 47: 1541-1549. 10.1007/s00125-004-1489-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anstee QM, Goldin RD: Mouse models in non-alcololic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis research. Int J Exp Path. 2006, 87: 1-16. 10.1111/j.0959-9673.2006.00465.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DeAngelis RA, Markieswki MM, Taub R, Lambris JD: A high-fat diet impairs liver regeneration in C57BL/6 mice through overexpression of the NF-κB inhibitor, IκBα. Hepatology. 2005, 42: 1148-1157. 10.1002/hep.20879.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biddinger SB, Almind K, Miyazaki M, Kikkotou E, Ntambi JM, Kahn CR: Effects of diet and genetic background on sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and the development of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2005, 54: 1314-1323. 10.2337/diabetes.54.5.1314.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Z, Soloski MJ, Diehl AM: Dietary factors alter hepatic innate immune system in mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005, 42: 880-886. 10.1002/hep.20826.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Raubenheimer PJ, Nyirenda MJ, Walker BR: A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Diabetes. 2006, 55: 2015-2020. 10.2337/db06-0097.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kanda J, Tateya S, Tamori Y, Kotani K, Hiase K, Kitazawa R, Kitazawa S, Miyachi H, Maeda S, Egashira K, Kasuga M: MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity. J Clin Invest. 2006, 116: 1494-1505. 10.1172/JCI26498.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parekh PI, Petro AE, Tiller JM, Feinglos MN, Surwit RS: Reversal of diet-induced obesity and diabetes in C57BL/6J mice. Metabolism. 1998, 47: 1089-1096. 10.1016/S0026-0495(98)90283-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coschigano KT, Holland AN, Riders ME, List EO, Flyvbjerg A, Kopchick JJ: Deletion, but not antagonism, of the mouse growth hormone receptor results in severely decreased body weights, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I levels and increased life span. Endocrinology. 2003, 144: 3799-3810. 10.1210/en.2003-0374.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fraze E, Chiou F, Chen YD, Reaven GM: Age-related changes in postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid concentrations in nondiabetic individuals. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1987, 35: 224-228.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Basu R, Breda E, Oberg AL, Powell CC, Man CD, Basu A, Vittone JL, Klee GG, Arora P, Jensen MD, Toffolo G, Cobelli C, Rizza RA: Mechanisms of the age-associated deterioration in glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 2003, 52: 1738-1748. 10.2337/diabetes.52.7.1738.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Catalano KJ, Bergman RN, Ader M: Increased susceptibility to insulin resistance associated with abdominal obesity in aging rats. Obesity Research. 2005, 13: 11-20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coon PJ, Rogus EM, Drinkwater D, Muller DC, Goldberg AP: Role of body fat distribution in the decline in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992, 75: 1125-1132. 10.1210/jc.75.4.1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Shaughnessy IM, Kasdorf GM, Hoffmann RG, Kalkhoff RK: Does aging intensify the insulin resistance of human obesity?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992, 74: 1075-1081. 10.1210/jc.74.5.1075.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Imbeault P, Prins JB, Stolic M, Rusell AW, O'Moore-Sullivan T, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A: Aging per se does not influence glucose homeostasis. Diabetes Care. 2003, 26: 480-484. 10.2337/diacare.26.2.480.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feldstein AE, Canbay A, Angulo P, Taniai M, Burgart LJ, Lindor KD, Gores GJ: Hepatocyte apoptosis and fas expression are prominent features of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2003, 125: 437-443. 10.1016/S0016-5085(03)00907-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feldstein AE, Canbay A, Guicciardi ME, Higuchi H, Bronk SF, Gores GJ: Diet associated hepatic steatosis sensitizes to fas mediated liver injury in mice. J Hepatology. 2003, 39: 978-983. 10.1016/S0168-8278(03)00460-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ: Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology. Edited by: Krawetz S, Misener S. 2000, Totowa (NJ): Humana Press, 365-386.Google Scholar
- Vandesompele J, De Preter K, Pattyn F: Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol. 2002, 3 (7): RESEARCH0034-10.1186/gb-2002-3-7-research0034.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kriete A, Boyce K: Automated tissue analysis – a bioinformatics perspective. Methods of Information in Medicine. 2005, 44 (1): 32-37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boyce K, Kriete A, Dela Cruz S, Kelder B, Coschigano KT, Kopchick JJ: Phenotypical enrichment strategies for microarray data analysis applied in a type 2 diabetes study. Omics. 2005, 3 (9): 251-265. 10.1089/omi.2005.9.251.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kelder B, Richmond C, Stavnezer E, List EO, Kopchick JJ: Production, characterization and functional activities of v-Ski in cultured cells. Gene. 1997, 202: 15-21. 10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00439-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.