- Open Access
Role of AIM in Corynebacterium-induced granuloma formation in mice
© Kuwata et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd 2004
- Published: 14 January 2004
- Flow Cytometric Analysis
- Scavenger Receptor
- Granuloma Formation
- Granulomatous Inflammation
- Surface Phenotype
Apoptosis inhibitor expressed by macrophages (AIM) is a murine macrophage-specific protein and belongs to the macrophage scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain superfamily. AIM has been introduced as the inducer of resistance to thymocyte apoptosis . Because apoptosis of inflammatory cells plays a pivotal role in inflammation , we have applied a mouse model to address potential involvement of AIM in the process of granulomatous inflammation in vivo.
Mice deficient in AIM (AIM-/-) were generated by disruption exon 3 of the AIM gene (1). AIM-/- and wild-type (AIM+/+) mice were used. Heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum), 0.5 mg, was injected into the tail vein. All mice were killed under diethyl ether anesthesia at various time intervals after injection.
Formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin embedded livers were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy.
Flow Cytometric Analysis and Detection of Apoptosis
The surface phenotype of leukocytes obtained from livers was analyzed using fluorescein isothiocyanate- (FITC), phycoerythrin-, or biotin-conjugated anti-CD3 and anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with a two- or three-color immunofluorescence test. To determine the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis, FITC-labeled Annexin-V was used.
- Miyazaki T, Hirokami Y, Matsuhashi N, Takatsuka H, Naito M: Increased susceptibility of thymocytes to apoptosis in mice lacking AIM, a novel murine macrophage-derived soluble factor belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain superfamily. J Exp Med. 1999, 189: 413-422. 10.1084/jem.189.2.413.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cory S: Regulation of lymphocyte survival by the bcl-2 gene family. Annu Rev Immunol. 1995, 13: 513-543. 10.1146/annurev.iy.13.040195.002501.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Apostolou I, Takahama Y, Belmant C, Kawano T, Huerre M, Marchal G, Cui J, Taniguchi M, Nakauchi H, Fournie J-J, Kourilsky P, Gachelin G: Murine natural killer cells contribute to the granulomatous reaction caused by mycobacterial cell walls. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999, 96: 5141-5146. 10.1073/pnas.96.9.5141.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaiissar MM, Weerasinghe A, Halder RC, Reza S, Morshed M, Ariyasinghe A, Watanabe H, Sekikawa H, Abo T: Resistance to Malarial infection is achieved by the cooperation of NK1.1+ and NK1.1- subsets of intermediate TCR cells which are constituents of innate immunity. Cell Immunol. 2001, 211: 96-104. 10.1006/cimm.2001.1833.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.