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Table 1 Synopsis of the predicted TGF-β and GR response elements in PAI-1 and CTGF promoter sequences

From: Glucocorticoids activate TGF-β induced PAI-1 and CTGF expression in rat hepatocytes

Gene Promoter motifs Pathway Promoter sequence Ref.
hCTGF GTGTCAAGGGGTCAGGAT TGF-β inducible -162 to 128 [14]
hCTGF GAGGAATGCGAGGAATG TGF-β-Smad3/4 -805 to +17 [15]
hCTGF - GR -292 to +22 [25]
mCTGF No direct binding, interaction with other TF (STAT3?) GR -897 to -628 (mouse strain specific) [19]
hPAI-1 AG(C/A)CAGACA TGF-β-Smad3/4 -730, -580, -280 [26]
hPAI-1 AG(C/A)CAGACA TGF-β-Smad3/4 -732 to -721 [27]
PAI-1 MLP(CAGA)9-luc TGF-β-Smad3/4 Reporter plasmid [28]
hPAI-1 - GR -800, -549, -100, +75, [17]
rPAI-1 AGCACACACTGTTCT GR -1212 to -1196 [29]
  1. Besides the transcriptional activation of gene expression through potentially response elements of single transcription factors, and apart from a cell-type specific composition of those transcription factors, a superior regulation is conceivable, e.g. a diversity in methylation sites or the condensation status of the chromatin. GTCTAGAC: TGF-β-Smad3/4 consensus sequence; GGTACANNNTGTTCT: GR consensus sequence; r: rat; h: human; m: mouse.