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Table 2 Overview of agents and experimental conditions which alter the fenestrae diameter and number Overview of fenestrae dynamics under various experimental and pathological conditions. Notice that conflicting data concerning the dynamics in fenestrae diameter after treatment with cytochalasin B were reported. In addition, contradictory results concerning the alterations in fenestral number also exists and were described after phorbol myristate acetate and endotoxin treatment, or when LSEC were cultured on laminin. These discrepancies in fenestral dynamics can probably be explained by the different experimental designs, influencing culture conditions and species specificity.

From: Structural and functional aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrae: a review

Fenestrae alterations by Diameter Number
  Increase Decrease Increase Decrease
Acethylcholine [4345] + - ? ?
Adrenalin [43, 45] - + ? ?
Bethanechol [43, 45] + - ? ?
Calmodulin antagonist W-7 [40] + - ? ?
Carbon tetrachloride [37, 46] + - - [46] + [46]
Cocaine combined with ethanol [47] ? ? - +
Collagen, IV-V [48] - - + -
Cytochalasin B [26, 35, 40, 42, 45, 4856] + [40, 45, 51] + [52, 55] + -
Diethylnitrosamine [5759] ? ? - +
Dimethylnitrosamine [39, 6062] - [60] - [60] - +
Endothelin [63] - + - +
Endotoxin [34, 62, 6466] + [65] + [34, 66] + [64] + [34, 62, 66]
Ethanol, acute dose [37, 51, 53, 54, 6769] + - - -
Ethanol, chronic dose [20, 22, 28, 70, 71] + [20, 70] - [20, 70] - +
Fatty liver [72, 73] ? ? - +
Hypoxia [33] + - ? ?
Hepatectomy [74] + - - +
Hepatitis virus, type 3 [35, 75] - [35] + [35] - +
Ionophore A23187 [40, 45] - + ? ?
Irradiation [33] + - ? ?
Isoproterenol [45] + - ? ?
Jasplakinolide [76] - + + -
Laminin [48, 77] - [48] - [48] + [48], - [77] - [48], + [77]
Latrunculin A [55, 78] - + + -
Misakinolide [79] - + + -
Neuropeptide Y [45] - + ? ?
Noradrenalin [44, 45, 80] - + ? ?
Nicotine [25, 81, 82] - + - +
Pantethine [81, 82] + - ? ?
Phalloidin [50] + - ? ?
Phorbol myristate acetate [83, 84] - [84] - [84] + [83], - [84] - [83], + [84]
Pressure [41, 85] + - ? ?
Prostaglandine E1[63, 86] + - ? ?
Serotonin [53, 54, 80, 84, 8790] - + ? ?
Swinholide A [79] - + + -
Temperature, 4°C [42] ? ? - +
Thioacetamide [36, 91] - + - +
Tumor cells [38, 9297] - [38, 92] + [38, 92] - +
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha [98] ? ? - +
Vasoactive intestinal peptide [45] + - ? ?
  1. References connected to the agents and experimental conditions mean unanimity in the literature of the observed fenestral dynamics; references connected to symbols indicate that the described effects are only reported in the corresponding literature; "+" = Yes; "-" = No; and "?" = no data available.